Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (2023)


Enzymes are important drug targets. Many drugs on the market today work by inhibiting enzymes that mediate disease phenotypes. Design, develop and validate robust enzyme assays forHTSapplications, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of enzyme biochemistry and enzyme action kinetics. This chapter covers the basic concepts of enzyme kinetics, the selection of appropriate substrates for assay design, and the estimation and significance of Kmand Vmax, intrinsic kinetic parameters of enzyme targets. These concepts are addressed in the context of drug discovery and HTS assay development.

Development flow diagram of enzymatic analysis

Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (1)


Enzyme inhibitors are an important class of pharmacological agents. Often these molecules are competitive, reversible inhibitors of substrate binding. This section describes the development and validation of assays to identify competitive, reversible inhibitors. In some cases, other mechanisms of action may be desirable that would require a different assay design. A separate approach should be used if a non-competitive mechanism is sought which is beyond the scope of this document and should be discussed with the enzymologist and chemist (1).

The concept

Enzymes are biological catalysts involved in important pathways that allow chemical reactions to occur at higher rates (rates) than would be possible without enzymes. Enzymes are generally globular proteins that have one or more substrate binding sites. The kinetic behavior of many enzymes can be explained by a simple model proposed during the 1900s:

Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (2)

where E is the enzyme, S is the substrate and P is the product (or products). ES is an enzyme-substrate complex that forms before the catalytic reaction. The term k1is the enzyme-substrate (ES) complex formation rate constant and k-1is the dissociation rate of the ES complex. In this model, the overall rate-limiting step in the reaction is the degradation of the ES complex to yield the product, which can proceed with a rate constant k2. It is generally assumed that the reverse reaction (E + P → ES) is negligible.

The assumption of a rapid equilibrium between the reactants (enzyme and substrate) and the enzyme-substrate complex resulted in mathematical descriptions of the kinetic behavior of the enzyme based on the concentration of the substrate (2). The most widely accepted equation, independently derived by Henri and later by Michaelis and Menten, relates the reaction rate to substrate concentration as shown in the equation below, commonly referred to as the Michaelis-Menten equation:

Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (3)


v = reaction rate

Vmax= maximum reaction rate


= substrate concentration

Km= Michaelis-Mentenova constant

For an enzymatic assay to identify competitive inhibitors, it is crucial to carry out the reactioninitial velocity conditionswith substrate concentrations at or below Kmvalue for a given substrate. The substrate should be either a natural substrate or a surrogate substrate, such as a peptide, that mimics the natural substrate. The optimal pH and concentrations of the buffer component should be determined before measuring Km(seeOptimization experiments).

What is initial velocity?

  • The initial rate is the initial linear part of the enzymatic reaction when less than 10% of the substrate is exhausted or less than 10% of the product is formed. Under these conditions, it is assumed that the substrate concentration does not change significantly and that the reverse reaction does not contribute to the rate.

  • The initial rate depends on the enzyme and substrate concentration and is the region of the curve where the rate does not change with time. This is not a predetermined time and may vary depending on the reaction conditions.

What are the consequences of not measuring the initial rate of the enzymatic reaction?

  • The reaction is non-linear with respect to enzyme concentration.

  • There is an unknown substrate concentration.

  • There is a greater possibility of saturation of the detection system

  • A kinetic treatment in equilibrium or fast equilibrium is not valid

Measuring the rate of an enzymatic reaction when 10% or less of the substrate is exhausted is the first requirement for steady-state conditions. At low substrate depletion, i.e., initial rate conditions, the factors listed below contribute to non-linear progress curves for enzymatic reactions that have no opportunity to influence the reaction.

  • Product inhibition

  • Enzyme saturation with substrate decreases as the reaction progresses due to decreasing substrate concentration (substrate limitation)

  • The reverse reaction contributes because the concentration of the product increases over time

  • An enzyme can be inactivated due to instability at a certain pH or temperature

Reagenti i development method

For any enzyme target, it is critical to ensure that the appropriate enzyme, substrate, required cofactors, and control inhibitors are available prior to beginning assay development. During the method design phase, the following requirements should be addressed:


Identity of target enzyme including amino acid sequence, purity and quantity and source of enzyme available for development, validation and support of screening/SAR activities. It should also be ensured that contaminating enzyme activities are eliminated. Specific activities should be determined for all batches of enzymes.


Identify the source and obtain native or surrogate substrates with appropriate sequence, chemical purity, and appropriate available supply.


Identify and procure buffer components, cofactors and other necessary additives for measuring enzyme activity according to published procedures and/or research.


To determine the stability of the enzyme activity under conditions of long-term storage and during experiments on the table. Establish lot-to-lot consistency for long-term testing.


Identify and obtain enzyme-inactive mutants purified under identical conditions (if available) for comparison with the wild-type enzyme.

(Video) Strategies for Assay Selection and for the Development of Robust Biochemical Assays

Linearity of the detection system

The capacity of the instrument must be determined by detecting the signal from the product and plotting it against the product concentration.Picture 1below shows what can happen if the detection system has a limited linear range. In the Capacity 20 trace, the system becomes nonlinear at product concentrations greater than 10% of the total product generated. This limited linear range would seriously compromise the measurements, because it is essential that the enzyme reaction condition be within the linear part of the instrument's capacity. Subsequent analysis of the assay could be affected if the enzymatic reaction is performed outside of this linear portion. The Capacity 100 trace represents a more ideal instrument capability that allows the detection of a wide range of products.

Picture 1:

Signal saturation can lead to false measurements of test parameters such as Km

The linear detection range for the instrument can be determined by using different product concentrations and measuring the signal. Plotting the resulting signal (Y-axis) against the amount of product (X-axis) provides a curve that can be used to identify the linear part of the detection for the instrument.

Enzyme reaction progression curve

Areaction progress curveit can be obtained by mixing an enzyme and its substrate and measuring the product formed over a period of time. It is necessary to determine the range of the initial rate of the enzymatic reaction and subsequent experiments should be carried out in this linear range, where less than 10% of the substrate is converted to product. If the reaction is not in the linear part, the enzyme concentration can be modified to maintain linearity during the experiment. Both of these steps (enzyme modification and reaction linearity analysis) can be performed in the same experiment. An example is shown belowFigure 2.

Figure 2:

The plateau is a consequence of substrate depletion

In this data set, the product is measured at different times for three different enzyme concentrations and one substrate concentration. The curves for 1x and 2x relative enzyme levels plateau early, due to substrate depletion. To increase the time that the enzyme-catalyzed reaction exhibits linear kinetics, the enzyme level can be reduced, as shown for the 0.5x curve. These curves are used to define the amount of enzyme that can be used to maintain the initial rate conditions over a period of time. These time points should be used for subsequent experiments.

Note that all three reaction progress curves shown in the above example approach a similar maximum value of the product formation plateau. This is an indication that the enzyme remains stable under the tested conditions. A similar experiment performed when enzyme activity decreases during the reaction is shown inFigure 3. In this case, the maximum plateau value of the generated product does not reach the same for all levels of the enzyme tested, probably due to the instability of the enzyme over time.

Figure 3:

The plateau is a consequence of the loss of enzyme activity (note: the plateaus do not converge)

Measurement of the initial rate of an enzymatic reaction

  • Maintain a constant temperature in the reaction so that all reagents are equilibrated at the same temperature.

  • Design the experiment so that the pH, ionic strength, and composition of the final buffer are constant. Initially, use a buffer that is known for the enzyme of interest either by consulting the literature or using a buffer recommended for the enzyme. This buffer could be further optimized in later stages of development.

  • Time course the reaction at three or four enzyme concentrations.

  • It is necessary to be able to measure the signal generated when 10% of product is formed or to detect 10% loss of substrate.

  • It is necessary to measure the signal at t=0 to correct for background (omit enzyme or substrate).

For kinase assays, the background can be determined by omitting the enzyme or substrate. The condition that results in the highest background level should be used. It's EDTAit isrecommended for use as a background control during kinase assay validation. Once the assay has been validated, if the background measured with EDTA is the same from the no-enzyme and no-substrate controls, then EDTA can be used.

(Video) Enzyme assay part 1 (Unit 2, Lecture 5)

Measurement of Kmand Vmax

Once the initial rate conditions have been established, the substrate concentration should be varied to obtain a saturation curve for determining Kmand Vmaxvalues.Initial velocity conditions must be used. The Michaelis-Menten kinetic model shows that Km= [S] na Vmax/2. How competitive inhibitors could be identified in a competitive experiment measuring IC50values, substrate concentration around or below Kmmust be used. Using substrate concentrations greater than Kmwill make it difficult to identify competitive inhibitors (a common target of SAR).

For testove kinase, Kmfor ATP should be determined using saturating concentrations of the substrate undergoing phosphorylation. Subsequent reactions should be carried out with an optimal concentration of ATP, around or below Kmvalue using initial velocity conditions. However, it would be best to determine Kmfor ATP and specific substrate simultaneously. This would allow gathering the maximum amount of information during the experiment, as well as addressing potential cooperativity between the substrate and ATP.

The requirement to meet steady-state conditions means that the experiment uses a large excess of substrate relative to the enzyme. Typical substrate-to-enzyme ratios are greater than 100, but can approach one million.

What does K mean?mmean

  • How is Km>>> [S], then the rate is very sensitive to changes in substrate concentration. If [S] >>> Km, then the rate is insensitive to changes in substrate concentration. Substrate concentration around or below Kmit is ideal for determining the activity of a competitive inhibitor.

  • Kmis constant for a given enzyme and substrate, and can be used to compare enzymes from different sources.

  • How is Kmseems "unphysiologically" high, then the reaction may be missing activators that would normally lower Kmlive, or that the enzyme conditions are not optimal.

How to measure Km

  • Measure the initial reaction rate at substrate concentrations between 0.2-5.0 Km. If available, use Kmgiven in the literature as a determinant of the concentration range to be used in this experiment. Use 8 or more substrate concentrations.

  • Measurement of Kmis an iterative process. For the first iteration, use six substrate concentrations covering a wide range of substrate concentrations to obtain an initial estimate. For subsequent iterations, use eight or more substrate concentrations between 0.2-5.0 Km. Check for multiple dots above and below Km.

  • For enzymes with more than one substrate, measure Kmsubstrate of interest with another substrate at saturating concentrations. This is also an iterative process. Once another Kmmeasure, it is necessary to check whether the first Kmwas measured under saturating concentrations of the second substrate.

  • Fit the data to a rectangular hyperbola function using nonlinear regression analysis. Traditional linearized methods for measuring Km’s should not be used.

Figure4i5show a typical procedure for determining Kmfor the base. INFigure 4, the reaction product is measured at different times for 8 different substrate levels. The generated product (Y-axis) is displayed in relation to the reaction time (X-axis). Each curve represents a different substrate concentration. Note that all curves are linear, indicating that the initial rate conditions (<10% substrate conversion) are met.

Figure 4.

Reaction progress curves at 8 substrate concentrations

Figure 5.

Initial velocity versus substrate concentration

Initial speed (vo) for each reaction progress curve is equivalent to the slope of the line, which is defined as the change in product formed divided by the change in time. This is expressed by the equation below and can be calculated using linear regression or another standard linear method:

Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (9)

The resulting slopes (initial velocity,vo) for each of the reaction progress curves are plotted on the Y-axis against the substrate concentration (X-axis) and a nonlinear regression analysis is performed using the rectangular hyperbola model as shown inFigure 5.

Vmaxi Kmfor the system is calculated from nonlinear regression analysis. The meaning of each term is shown inFigure 5. Kmis the substrate concentration that results in an initial reaction rate that is half the maximum rate determined under saturating substrate concentrations.

Linear transformations, such as a double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burke plot of initial rate/substrate concentration data (ie, 1/vorelative to 1/[S], ​​it should not be used to calculate Kmand Vmaxfrom saturation-type experiments as described above. These linear transformations tend to distort the error involved in measurement and were used before programs capable of performing nonlinear regression analysis were widely available.

An additional parameter, often seen in the literature, that can sometimes be useful for describing enzyme efficiency, is the catalytic constant (or turnover number) called kcat. Kcatvalue can be determined from saturation data (Figure 5) from the following equation:

Basics of enzyme assays for HTS (10)

Where [E]andis the initial enzyme concentration and Vmaxis the maximum speed determined from the saturation hyperbola.

For kinase reactions where Kmfor ATP and substrate need to be determined, it is best to use multidimensional analysis to measure both K'sm’s at the same time. An example is shown inFigure 6.

Figure 6.

Simultaneous determination of Kmfor ATP and specific substrate

(Video) High Throughput Screening | Drug Discovery Process |

If this method is used, it is important to demonstrate that under extreme conditions (especially low substrate, high ATP concentrations) the linearity of the instrument is maintained. In addition, it is important that the linearity of the reaction is maintained under all conditions. Appropriate background controls must be used. The best condition would be a combination of the best signal-to-noise ratio while keeping the substrate and ATP concentrations as low as possible. Consult with a biochemist and statistician experienced in these techniques to ensure that appropriate data analysis methods are used.

Determination of IC50for inhibitors

Concentration-response plots are used to determine the effects of inhibitors on an enzymatic reaction. These experiments are performed at constant enzyme and substrate concentrations and are the primary type of analysis performed to measure structure-activity relationships (SARs) for compounds of interest.

A typical concentration-response diagram is shown inFigure 7. Fractional activity (Y-axis) is plotted as a function of inhibitor concentration (X-axis). Data were fitted using standard four-parameter logistic nonlinear regression analysis.

Figure 7.

Concentration-response graph for an enzyme inhibitor

The compound concentration that results in 50% inhibition of maximal activity is called the IC50(inhibitor concentration gives 50% inhibition). It is important to use sufficient inhibitor concentrations to ensure well-defined upper and lower plateau values. These parameters are key to the mathematical models used to fit the data. Other criteria for successful concentration-response curves are outlined in the discussion below.

IC50Designation for SAR

  • Use at least 10 inhibitor concentrations for accurate IC50determination. Equally spaced ranges of concentrations (ie, 3-fold or half-log dilutions) provide the best data sets for analysis.

  • Ideally, half the data points on the IC50the curve is above IC50value and pole are below IC50value, including minimum and maximum signal.

  • Lower limit for IC determination50is ½ the enzyme concentration (tight binding inhibitors, 3).

  • Screening strategies to define the initial SAR include: determination of % inhibition at a single concentration; determination of % inhibition at high and low inhibitor concentration; and finally, determining the apparent IC50using lower concentrations.

IC application criteria50’s

  • The maximum inhibition percentage should be greater than 50%.

  • The topand the lower values ​​should be within 15% of theory.

  • 95% confidence limits for IC50should be in the range of 2-5 times.

Since IK50value is the most common result reported for enzyme assays, it is important to understand how experimental conditions affect IC50determinations. In general, substrate concentrations relative to Kmand the amount of product produced have the greatest effect on the measured IC50.Figure 8shows the effect of both substrate concentration and percent conversion on the measured IC50values ​​for a competitive inhibitor.

Figure 8.

Effect of substrate concentration and % conversion on IC50for inhibitor

Figure 8shows the effect of both substrate concentration and % conversion on the measured IC50values. Increased substrate conversion as well as increased substrate concentrations will increase the resulting IC50value for a given inhibitor. The data were modeled with the assumption that Kand= 1.0 for a competitive inhibitor with no product inhibition.

Optimization experiments

Data from published literature should be used to select these factors. For example, a factorial design experiment can be conducted by varying:

  • Divalent cations, for example Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+

  • Salts, for example NaCl, KCl

  • EDTA

    (Video) High Throughput Screening

  • Reducing agents such as βME, DTT, glutathione

  • Bovine serum albumin

  • Detergents such as Triton, CHAPS

  • DMSO

  • Buffer source, for example HEPESin regards toacetate

  • pH

In addition to assay conditions, enzyme stability may be affected if proper precautions are not taken during long-term storage. Many enzymes must be stored at -70°C to maintain activity, but freeze-thaw cycles are not recommended. Other enzymes can be stored for longer periods at -20°C using a storage buffer additive such as 50% glycerol.

The presence of carrier proteins in the buffer (bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, others...), as well as the use of polypropylene plates (or non-binding polystyrene plates) can be essential for maintaining proper enzyme activity.

Enzyme instability can also occur during the assay, as previously shown inFigure 3. This type of instability can occur if the active conformation of the enzyme is not stable under selected test conditions such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc. In addition, for enzymes that are dimerized, high dilution in the assay buffer can result in inactivation.

Test validation

Parameters such as substrate Kmand control inhibitor IC50should be determined in three separate experiments to assess variability. Refers toHTS assay validationto estimate assay variability.


Examples of software for fitting enzyme kinetics data:

Graphpad Prizma (

Sigma diagram (

Graphite (



Fersht, Alan. Structure and mechanism of enzymes. WH Freeman and Co., NY, 1985, p. 327-330.


Segel, Irwin H. Enzyme Kinetics: Behavior and Analysis of Fast Equilibrium and Steady State Enzyme Systems. John Wiley and Sons, NY 1975.


Copeland, Robert A. Enzymes: A Practical Introduction to Structure, Mechanism, and Data Analysis. Wiley-VCH, NY, 2nd edition, 2000.


Dixon, M. and Webb, E.C. Enzymes, 3rd ed. Academic Press, NY 1979.


Lai C-J. -,Wu JC A simple kinetic method for rapid mechanistic analysis of reversible enzyme inhibitors.Drug tests and development. Technologies.2003;1(4):527-535.[PubMed: 15090249]





What are basic enzyme assays? ›

An enzyme assay is the name given to any laboratory technique that measures enzyme activity within a sample. Enzyme assays can be used for a variety of purposes, which include identifying the presence of an enzyme, investigation of specific enzyme kinetics or the activity of inhibition within a sample.

How do you determine enzyme assay? ›

Usually, the assay is carried out by determining the enzyme activity with and without activation by added coenzyme. The activity can be monitored by measuring changes in concentration of substrates or products during the reaction.

What conditions are important to maintain in performing the enzyme assays? ›

The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes.

What are the different types of enzyme assays? ›

There are many different types of continuous assays.
  • Spectrophotometric. In spectrophotometric assays, you follow the course of the reaction by measuring a change in how much light the assay solution absorbs. ...
  • Fluorometric. ...
  • Calorimetric. ...
  • Chemiluminescent. ...
  • Light scattering. ...
  • Microscale thermophoresis.

What is a basic assay? ›

An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, mining, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity.

What methods are used to measure enzyme activity? ›

The methods used for measuring enzymatic activities include spectrophotometry, fluorescence, and radiolabeling. The enzymatic assay can be direct or indirect; where, in the case of direct assay substrate is added to the soil system and the end product formed is determined.

What are the techniques of enzyme analysis? ›

Most enzyme assays are based on spectroscopic techniques, with the two most used being absorption and fluorescence. Enzyme assays based on photometry, fluorometry, 96-, 384-, or even 1536-well format microplate offer a high-throughput alternative to the traditional spectrophotometers.

How do you determine assay? ›

An assay is a process of analyzing a substance to determine its composition or quality. Three techniques - fire assay, wet chemistry, and instrumental analysis - are primarily used to analyze and determine purity of metals.

What are the 4 mechanisms influencing enzyme activity? ›

Factors affecting enzyme activity include temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and the presence of inhibitors or activators.

What are 3 main factors that affect enzyme activity? ›

Enzyme activity can be affected by a variety of factors, such as temperature, pH, and concentration. Enzymes work best within specific temperature and pH ranges, and sub-optimal conditions can cause an enzyme to lose its ability to bind to a substrate.

What are the 5 factors which can control the rate of enzyme activity? ›

Several factors affect the rate at which enzymatic reactions proceed - temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, and the presence of any inhibitors or activators.

Which method is generally preferred for enzyme assay? ›

Most enzyme assays are based on spectroscopic techniques, with the two most commonly used being absorption and fluorescence Fersht (1999).

What are the 2 most important factors for an enzyme? ›

Answer and Explanation: Two factors that affect the activity of an enzyme are temperature and pH.

What are the 3 types of enzyme inhibition? ›

There are three main types of inhibition (competitive, noncompetitive, and uncompetitive) that are most commonly used to describe the binding of an inhibitor to a target enzyme (Figure 1).

What are the 4 main types of enzymes? ›

According to the International Union of Biochemists (I U B), enzymes are divided into six functional classes and are classified based on the type of reaction in which they are used to catalyze. The six kinds of enzymes are hydrolases, oxidoreductases, lyases, transferases, ligases and isomerases.

What is the difference between enzyme activity and enzyme assay? ›

Enzyme activity refers to the general catalytic properties of an enzyme, and enzyme assays are standardized procedures for measuring the amounts of specific enzymes in a sample. Enzyme activity is measured in vitro under conditions that often do not closely resemble those in vivo.

What are the 4 types of enzyme specificity? ›

Most generally, they are divided into four groups: absolute, group, linkage, and stereochemical specificity.
  • Absolute specificity. Absolute specificity can be thought of as being exclusive, in which an enzyme acts upon one specific substrate. ...
  • Group specificity. ...
  • Bond specificity. ...
  • Stereochemical specificity.

What are the four types of assay? ›

The main types of assay used for blood screening are:
  • Immunoassays (IAs): — Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) — Chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) — Haemagglutination (HA)/particle agglutination (PA) assays. — Rapid/simple single-use assays (rapid tests)
  • Nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays.

What are the three types of assay? ›

Assays can be divided into three main categories based on the type of sample used – ligand-binding assays that measure binding between a ligand and a receptor, immunoassays that detect antibody-antigen binding, and bioassays that measure biological activity in response to certain stimuli.

What is the difference between test and assay? ›

The main difference between limit test and assay is that limit test allows the identification and control of small quantities of impurities present in a substance whereas an assay mainly allows the identification and determination of the key component of a sample.

What is an example of an enzyme assays? ›

Enzymatic activity assays are predominately performed by researchers to identify the presence or quantity of a specific enzyme in an organism, tissue, or sample. Examples of such enzymes include α-amylase, catalase, laccase, peroxidase, lysozyme, and reporter enzymes alkaline phosphatase, and luciferase.

What is the principle of enzyme activity determination? ›

The exact mechanism whereby the enzyme acts to increase the rate of the reaction differs from one system to another. However, the general principle is that by binding of the substrate to the enzyme, the reaction involving the substrate is made more favourable by lowering the activation energy of the reaction.

What does an assay detect? ›

A laboratory test to find and measure the amount of a specific substance.

What is the difference between assay and method? ›

Assay is quantitative determination of content of analyte. Assay of analyte can be determined using chemical technique like potentiometric titration or using HPLC or GC chromatography etc. Method is combinations of different methods which used to determine the various parameters of analyte.

What is the difference between assay and sample? ›

In chemistry, an assay is an analysis carried out to determine the level of impurities a sample has. It is a quantitative determination. In a sample, after identifying the main material present in it, its concentration is measured in an assay. Assay methods normally incorporate accurate and precise analytical methods.

What 6 factors affect enzyme activity? ›

Effect of enzyme, substrate, product concentration, time, temperature, pH and presence of activators and inhibitors.

How does pH affect enzyme activity? ›

Enzyme activity is at its maximum value at the optimum pH. As the pH value is increased above or decreased below the optimum pH the enzyme activity decreases.

What are 4 factors that affect enzyme speed? ›

Enzyme activity is affected by a number of factors including the concentration of the enzyme, the concentration of the substrate, the temperature, the pH, and the salt concentration.

What is the best temperature for the enzyme? ›

The optimum temperature for most enzymes is about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius). There are also enzymes that work well at lower and higher temperatures. For example, Arctic animals have enzymes adapted to lower optimal temperatures; animals in desert climates have enzymes adapted to higher temperatures.

Which variable has least effect on enzyme activity? ›

Enzyme concentration does not affect the enzyme activity directly as substrate concentration determine it until the presence of the substrate in an excess amount. Enzymes are the assemblage of protein subunits and hence function under specific temperature and pH range only.

Why does temperature affect enzyme activity? ›

Higher temperature generally causes more collisions among the molecules and therefore increases the rate of a reaction. More collisions increase the likelihood that substrate will collide with the active site of the enzyme, thus increasing the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

What are two ways to control enzyme activity? ›

Enzymes can be regulated by other molecules that either increase or reduce their activity. Molecules that increase the activity of an enzyme are called activators, while molecules that decrease the activity of an enzyme are called inhibitors.

What are 4 ways enzymes are controlled? ›

There are four general methods that are employed:
  • allosterism,
  • covalent modification,
  • access to substrate, and.
  • control of enzyme synthesis/breakdown.
Mar 6, 2021

How does water affect enzyme activity? ›

It is found that regardless of the type of reaction, the functionality of enzyme itself is maximum at an optimum level of water, beyond which the enzyme performance is declined due to the loss in enzyme stability.

How do you optimize an enzyme assay? ›

Many factors must be considered during the optimization of an enzyme assay. These include the choice of buffer and its composition, the type of enzyme and its concentration, as well as the type of substrate and concentrations, the reaction conditions, and the appropriate assay technology.

What is the most commonly used enzyme in enzyme immunoassay? ›

After unbound components are washed away, an enzyme-labeled antiviral antibody (the “detector” antibody) is added; various enzymes can be linked to the antibody, but horseradish peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase are the most commonly used.

Which enzyme model is more accurate? ›

A more accurate description of enzyme structure is the Induced Fit model of enzyme action. The Induced Fit model was proposed by Daniel Koshland in 1958. According to Koshland's hypothesis, the active site is shaped similarly enough and has specific chemical properties that attract a substrate to bind.

What are 2 factors that can denature enzymes proteins? ›

Enzymes can be denatured in three different ways: increase beyond the optimal temperature of an organism; decreases in pH, resulting in acidity; and increases in pH, producing a basic environment. These factors disrupt the bonds holding an enzyme together.

What are the two main types of enzymes? ›

There are 2 types of enzymes, ones that help join specific molecules together to form new molecules & others that help break specific molecules apart into separate molecules.

What is the most important property of an enzyme? ›

Like all other catalysts, enzymes are characterized by two fundamental properties. First, they increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being consumed or permanently altered by the reaction. Second, they increase reaction rates without altering the chemical equilibrium between reactants and products.

What are 4 things that inhibit enzyme activity? ›

Factors such as pH, temperature, effectors, and inhibitors modify the enzyme conformation, altering its catalytic activity.

Which enzyme is not a protein? ›

With the exception of ribozymes, all enzymes are protein-based.

What are the 3 specific enzymes? ›

What are the different types of enzymes?
  • Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates into sugars.
  • Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids.
  • Protease breaks down protein into amino acids.
May 12, 2021

What are basic enzymes examples? ›

Some of the most common digestive enzymes are: Carbohydrase breaks down carbohydrates into sugars. Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids. Protease breaks down protein into amino acids.

What are enzyme assays in medical diagnosis? ›

Enzyme assays have been the gold standard for providing definitive diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) by demonstrating deficient enzyme activity in leukocytes/plasma/cultured fibroblast.

What is enzyme assay for disease diagnosis? ›

An enzyme marker is a blood test to measure enzymes, proteins in your blood that can indicate tissue damage or disease. Elevated cardiac enzymes after a heart attack are a sign of serious heart damage. High levels of CPK isoenzymes may indicate a muscle disease, while elevated liver enzymes suggest liver damage.

What are the 7 types of enzymes? ›

Enzymes can be classified into 7 categories according to the type of reaction they catalyse. These categories are oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, and translocases. Out of these, oxidoreductases, transferases and hydrolases are the most abundant forms of enzymes.

What are the 4 main enzymes? ›

There are four main enzymes that facilitate DNA replication: helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, and ligase.

What are the most common enzymes used for clinical diagnosis? ›

Common enzymes used for clinical diagnosis include:
  • amylase.
  • angiotensin converting enzyme.
  • aspartate aminotransferase.
  • cholinesterase.
  • creatinine kinase.
  • gamma glutamyltransferase.
  • lactate dehydrogenase.
  • renin.

Why is an enzyme assay a valuable tool in clinical testing? ›

Enzyme assays are laboratory methods that measure the rate of enzyme reactions (enzyme activity). These assays also help to develop analysis technologies and to study enzyme catalytic mechanisms. They are vital for the study of enzyme kinetics and enzyme inhibition.

What are two types of diagnostic enzymes? ›

Two aminotransferases are in use in diagnostic enzymology. They are: Aspartate Amino Transaminase (AST) and Alanine Amino Transaminase (ALT).

Can you diagnose a patient's disease by means of an enzymatic activity? ›

Lysosomal enzyme testing has been the gold standard for providing definitive diagnoses, which can be further confirmed by identifying disease-causing mutations.

What are common assays used to detect genetic diseases? ›

Laboratory tests, including genetic testing: Molecular, chromosomal, and biochemical genetic or genomic testing are used to diagnose genetic disorders. Other laboratory tests that measure the levels of certain substances in blood and urine can also help suggest a diagnosis.

What are the biomarkers for disease diagnosis? ›

Biomarkers can have molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological characteristics. Examples of biomarkers include everything from blood pressure and heart rate to basic metabolic studies and x-ray findings to complex histologic and genetic tests of blood and other tissues.

What are three ways enzyme activity can be measured? ›

Enzymatic activities are measured by breakdown of the substrates and generation of products. The methods used for measuring enzymatic activities include spectrophotometry, fluorescence, and radiolabeling.

What are the methods of enzyme analysis? ›

Most enzyme assays are based on spectroscopic techniques, with the two most used being absorption and fluorescence. Enzyme assays based on photometry, fluorometry, 96-, 384-, or even 1536-well format microplate offer a high-throughput alternative to the traditional spectrophotometers.


1. WEBINAR: Saving an Enzymatic HTS Assay with Sound
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Birthday: 1994-11-11

Address: Apt. 721 977 Ebert Meadows, Jereville, GA 73618-6603

Phone: +2316203969400

Job: International Farming Consultant

Hobby: Reading, Photography, Shooting, Singing, Magic, Kayaking, Mushroom hunting

Introduction: My name is Eusebia Nader, I am a encouraging, brainy, lively, nice, famous, healthy, clever person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.